The study and design through the advancement of computer systems enabling it to execute tasks by human intelligence in order to make it an intelligent agent which has the characteristics such as reasoning, problem-solving, learning through vision, speech recognition, and ability to comprehend, understanding the distinction and translating languages is known as artificial intelligence. In the year 1955, an American computer and cognitive scientist John McCarthy introduced the term “artificial intelligence” and defined it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.” Artificial Intelligence is the technological area of study that aims in creating computers and programs which are adept to demonstrate intelligent behavior.
The two prominent approaches that have been recorded in the history of the AI namely-
Classical approach- This approach discusses about the use symbolic reasoning for designing the AI. It is a mathematical avenue that processes with the rule of logic both the ideas and concepts, which are represented by words, phrases or sentences.
Connectionist approach- This approach has given an elaborated view about the development of AI on the basis of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, the artificial neutral networks function in the similar manner of working of the neurons, whereas the genetic algorithms follows the mechanism of inheritance and dynamism leading to accuracy in solutions.
Currently, AI is applied successfully in various domains yet its contribution has not been acknowledged accordingly. AI has brought prominent evolution in the fields namely-
- Customer Services
- Computer Science
- Engineering and Architecture
- Health and Safety
- Hospitals and Medicines
- Heavy Industry
- News publishing and writing
- Power and Conservation
- Products and Services
- Telecommunication maintenance
- Toys, Games, Activities
List of areas or subfields of AI
Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data.
Optical character recognition is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text.
Handwriting recognition is the ability of a computer to receive and interpret intelligible handwritten input from sources such as paper documents, photographs, touch-screens and other devices.
Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics which incorporates knowledge and research in the linguistics, computer science, and electrical engineering fields to develop methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers and computerized devices.
Face recognition is a computer application capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.
Artificial creativity is a multidisciplinary endeavour that is located at the intersection of the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, philosophy, and the arts.
Computer vision is a field that includes methods for acquiring, processing, analyzing, and understanding images and, in general, high-dimensional data from the real world in order to produce numerical or symbolic information, Virtual reality creates sensory experiences, which can include sight, touch, hearing, and smell and Image processing is processing of images using mathematical operations by using any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, a series of images, or a video, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image.
Diagnosis (artificial intelligence) is concerned with the development of algorithms and techniques that are able to determine whether the behaviour of a system is correct. If the system is not functioning correctly, the algorithm should be able to determine, as accurately as possible, which part of the system is failing, and which kind of fault it is facing.
Game theory is “the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers.” and Strategic planning is an organization’s process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy.
Game artificial intelligence is used to refer to a broad set of algorithms that also include techniques from control theory, robotics, computer graphics and computer science in general and Computer game bot is a type of weak AI expert system software which for each instance of the program controls a player in a game.
Natural language processing is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text and Chatterbots is a computer program which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods viz. Braina, Cortana, Siri.
Nonlinear control is the area of control theory which deals with systems that are nonlinear, time-variant, or both. and Robotics is the branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
Artificial life is a field of study and an associated art form which examine systems related to life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.
Automated reasoning is an area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.
Automation is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention.
Concept mining is an activity that results in the extraction of concepts from artifacts. Solutions to the task typically involve aspects of artificial intelligence and statistics, such as data mining and text mining.
Hybrid intelligent system denotes a software system which employs, in parallel, a combination of methods and techniques from artificial intelligence subfields.
Intelligent agent is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals.
It can be concluded that we are highly relying upon the AI and in the coming years droids, bots and machines might as well replace human jobs due to the significant research and development in the AI sector. Humanoid robots with AI are predicted to emerge in the coming 10 years or so.
All said and done, the future holds all the answers to the questions that we have now. Will AI turn out to be a boon? Or will it be a bane? Time shall unfold the secret.